LM358 Dual Op-Amp: Pinout, Datasheet and Working
Updatezeit: 2023-10-19 17:55:25
The LM358 Op-Amp boasts a specialized design tailored for seamless operation across a diverse spectrum of voltage supplies. It shines particularly in low-voltage AC scenarios and moderate-voltage DC applications. What's more, its compact form factor and cost-effectiveness render it a staple in numerous real-world applications, such as transducer amplification, DC gain augmentation, active filtering, and conventional op-amp circuitry. The LM358 IC gracefully accommodates supply voltages ranging from 3V to 32V DC, with the capacity to source up to 20 mA per channel.
Within this comprehensive guide, we delve into the fundamental aspects of the Dual Op-Amp LM358, including its basics, features, circuits, working, pin configuration, equivalents & applications.
What is LM358?
The LM358 IC is a dual operational amplifier integrated circuit, housing two Op-Amps that share a common power supply. It's akin to one-half of the LM324 Quad op-amp, which encompasses four op-amps operating under a unified power supply. The LM358 series introduces two independent, high-gain operational amplifiers that come internally frequency compensated. Their distinct design enables them to operate seamlessly across a broad spectrum of voltage ranges, particularly while drawing power from a single supply source.
What sets the LM358 series apart is its lineage, inheriting circuit designs perfected for Quad Operational Amplifiers. We also provided a detailed introduction to LM358N Op-Amp in the previous article. These dual operational amplifiers are characterized by their low power consumption, an expansive common mode input voltage range that extends to ground/VEE, and the flexibility of operating with either a single supply or a split supply configuration. Essentially, the LM358 series corresponds to one-half of an LM324. These amplifiers offer several distinct advantages over conventional operational amplifier types, particularly in single-supply applications. They can function reliably within supply voltage limits ranging from as low as 3.0 V to as high as 32 V. Furthermore, their quiescent currents are approximately one-fifth of those typically associated with the MC1741, calculated on a per-amplifier basis. The common mode input range even includes the negative supply, effectively eliminating the need for external biasing components in many applications. Additionally, the output voltage range encompasses the negative power supply voltage.
Pin No. Pin Name Description 1 Output A This pin is the output of first operational amplifier 2 Inverting Input A This pin is the inverting input of first op-amp 3 Non inverting Input A This pin is the non-inverting input of first op-amp 4 Ground (GND) This pin is the non-inverting input of first op-amp 5 Non inverting Input B This ground or negative supply to op-amp 6 Inverting Input B This pin is the non-inverting input of second op-amp 7 Output B This pin is the output of the second op-amp 8 Vcc This pin is the positive voltage supply to both op-amp
LM358 Features & Specification
Dual Operational Amplifiers: Housed within a single package are two operational amplifiers, enhancing versatility for various tasks.
Wide Power Supply Range: The IC functions across a broad power supply spectrum, accommodating voltages from 3V to 32V in a singular power supply setup, or from ±1.5V to ±16V in a dual power supply arrangement.
Significant Voltage Gain: It provides substantial voltage gain, measuring at around 100 dB, ensuring effective signal amplification.
Generous Bandwidth: With a broad bandwidth of 1 MHz, it suits applications requiring higher frequencies.
Low Supply Current: Maintaining a low supply current at 700µA, it offers advantages in power efficiency.
Elevated Output Voltage Swing: The IC delivers a high output voltage swing, accommodating a wide range of output signal amplitudes.
Matching Differential Input Voltage Range: The differential input voltage range closely aligns with the power supply voltage, enhancing operational adaptability.
Safeguarded Against Short Circuits: The outputs benefit from short circuit protection, bolstering the device's durability.
Internal Frequency Compensation: The device is internally frequency compensated for unity gain, streamlining its application.
Accommodating Common-Mode Voltage Range: It offers a common-mode voltage range that extends down to ground level, diminishing the need for external biasing components in many scenarios.
Minimal Input Bias Currents: With low input bias currents, the IC promotes reliable and steady performance.
Suited to Single and Split Supply Operation: The IC is compatible with both single and split supply configurations, enhancing versatility in application.
Suitable Operating Temperature Range: It operates effectively within an ambient temperature range spanning from 0˚C to 70˚C.
Resistant to High-Temperature Soldering: The device can withstand high soldering temperatures, with a capacity of up to 260˚C during the assembly process.
Variety of Package Choices: Available in multiple package types, including TO-99, CDIP, DSBGA, SOIC, PDIP, and DSBGA.
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection: Featuring ESD clamps on the inputs to augment the device's resilience.
Representative Schematic Diagram
LM358 Application Circuits
Circuit 1: Infrared Detection Alarm
This alarm is capable of detecting infrared radiation emitted by the human body. When a person enters the monitoring area of the alarm, it triggers an audible alert. This system is suitable for various critical locations such as homes, offices, warehouses, and laboratories.
The circuit, as shown in Figure 1, comprises an infrared sensor (IC1), a signal amplification circuit, a voltage comparator, a delay circuit, and an audio alarm circuit. When the infrared sensor IC1 detects infrared signals radiated by a human body in front of it, it generates a weak electrical signal at pin 2. This signal is then amplified by the first-stage amplification circuit composed of VT1.
The amplified signal is further processed by the operational amplifier IC2, which provides high gain and low noise amplification. The output at pin 1 of IC2 is now sufficiently strong. IC3 functions as a voltage comparator. Its pin 5 is supplied with a reference voltage from R10 and VD1. When the voltage at pin 6 of IC3 matches the output voltage from pin 1 of IC2, the voltage levels are compared, and the output at pin 7 of IC3 switches from high to low.
IC4 serves as the alarm delay circuit, with R14 and C6 forming a delay circuit that lasts about one minute. When pin 7 of IC3 goes low, C6 discharges through VD2. This makes pin 2 of IC4 go low. It then compares its voltage at pin 3 with the reference voltage. When it falls below the reference voltage, pin 1 of IC4 goes high, causing VT2 to conduct and the buzzer BL to be energized, producing an alarm sound. After the human body's infrared signal disappears, pin 7 of IC3 returns to a high output, and VD2 cuts off. Since the voltage across C6 cannot change abruptly, R14 charges C6 slowly. When the voltage across C6 exceeds the reference voltage, which takes about a minute, pin 1 of IC4 goes low, and the alarm lasts for approximately one minute.
VT3, R20, and C8 comprise the startup delay circuit, which also lasts about a minute. It is primarily designed to prevent immediate alarms when the device is powered on, providing users with enough time to exit the monitored area and preventing false alarms during power interruptions.
The device operates on a 9-12V DC power supply, utilizing transformer T for voltage reduction, bridge rectifier U for full-wave rectification, and C10 for filtering. The detection circuit is powered by IC5, 78L06. This device is suitable for both AC and DC power supplies, providing automatic seamless switching.
Circuit 2: High-End Current Detection Circuit
Directly feeding the voltage across the sampling resistor into the microcontroller's AD has certain limitations. Firstly, when the current is low, the voltage across the sampling resistor is also low, and the AD converter may require a high sensitivity to detect it. Secondly, since this is a low-end detection, the power output and input cannot share a common ground, which can affect the output voltage's stability (regulated output = sampling resistor voltage + actual output voltage).
To address these issues, a high-end detection circuit is designed, as illustrated below:
Inside this circuit, there's a crucial resistor, R9 (enclosed in the blue box), which is indispensable in practical applications. Without it, the LM358 would output at least 0.7V. Adding this resistor ensures that the output is 0V when there's no current, but this circuit still has a drawback. When the output voltage is high, LM358 continues to have an output even when there's no current.
The circuit employs a 7809 to replace the actual 3R33 voltage regulator circuit. In the 3R33's voltage sampling circuit, it must be placed after the sampling resistor to maintain output stability.
Circuit 3: DC-Coupled Low-Pass RC Active Filter
Circuit 4: RC Active Band-Pass Filter
Circuit 5: Square Wave Generator
These circuits represent various practical applications for the LM358, showcasing its versatility and utility in electronic design.
LM358 Operating Principle & Working
Within the LM358, Pin 8 serves as the primary power supply input. When employing the LM358 as a comparator, input voltages ranging from 3V to 32V are permissible. In cases where it functions as an operational amplifier, the supply voltage should fall within the range of ±1.5V to ±16V.
The LM358 integrates two operational amplifiers labeled as A and B in the pin diagram. The first amplifier (A) receives input at pins 2 and 3, producing output at pin 1. For the second amplifier (B), input is channeled through pins 5 and 6, while output emerges at pin 7.
To compare two signals, one is directed to pin 2 and the other to pin 3. The voltage at pin 2 is evaluated against that at pin 3, and similarly, the voltage at pin 6 is compared to that at pin 5, generating two distinct outcomes: Output A and Output B.
When the input at the non-inverting input A (+) on pin 3 surpasses the input at the inverting input A (-) on pin 2, the output of op-amp A assumes a high state. Similarly, when the input at the non-inverting input B (+) on pin 5 exceeds the input at the inverting input B (-) on pin 6, the output of op-amp B is also driven high.
Conversely, when the input at the non-inverting input A (+) on pin 3 falls below the input at the inverting input A (-) on pin 2, the output of op-amp A switches to a low state. Likewise, when the input at the non-inverting input B (+) on pin 5 is lower than the input at the inverting input B (-) on pin 6, the output of op-amp B transitions to a low state as well.
Notably, there is no necessity for a pull-up resistor at the output of the LM358.
Two operational amplifiers are compensated internally.
You can use both op-amps at a time, or if you need only one op-amp, you can use it.
Two internally compensated for OP-AMP.
Removes the necessity of dual supplies.
Power drains suitable for battery operation.
Permits direct sensing close to GND and VOUT.
Compatibility with all forms of logic.
The LM358 series is equivalent to one-half of the LM324. ICs with matching characteristics can be regarded as equivalents of the LM358. These include LM158, LM258, LM2904, and LM2409. Although these ICs may have slight differences in thermal properties, they are generally suitable replacements for most projects.
For potential replacements, consider: GL 358, NE 532, OP 04, OP 221, OP 290, OP 295, OPA 2237, TA7 5358-P, UPC 358C, AN 6561, CA 358E, and HA 17904.
DC gain block
General signal conditioning
General signal amplification
Operational amplifier circuit
Current loop transmitters for 4 to 20 mA
Comparators (loop control and regulation)
Integrator, differentiator, adder, voltage follower, and more.
Practical uses include shock alarm circuits and dark sensor circuits.
LM358 IC Packages
The LM358 Dual Op-Amp IC is available in four distinct package types: DSBGA, PDIP, TO-CAN, and SOT-25(5). For detailed information regarding these packages, including their dimensions and part numbers, please refer to the tabular diagram provided below.
LM 358 IC Packages Package Dimension Unit DSBGA(8) 1.31 X1.31 mm PDIP(8) 1.91 X6.35 mm T0-CAN(8) 9.08 X 9.31 mm S0IC(8) 4.90 X 3.91 mm
- What is LM358 used for?
LM358 finds versatile applications as a transducer amplifier, a DC gain block, and more. It boasts a substantial DC voltage gain of 100dB. This integrated circuit (IC) offers flexibility by operating within a broad power supply range, from 3V to 32V for single power supply setups and from ±1.5V to ±16V for dual power supply configurations. Additionally, it supports a wide output voltage swing.
- What is the difference between LM741 and LM358?
LM358 functions as a low-power operational amplifier, while IC 741 serves as a voltage comparator.
- Can LM324 and LM358 be replaced?
The LM358 is an 8-pin dual operational amplifier, whereas the LM324 is a 14-pin quad operational amplifier. Both share identical parameters, which allows for interchangeability, albeit requiring some adjustments to the circuit board. If employed as a comparator within an inverter, this substitution poses no issues. In my opinion, the LM358 is a preferable choice, given its simpler circuit board design. However, when the operational amplifier serves as an oscillator, I recommend replacing it with high-speed op amps such as the TL082 and TL084.
- Can use LM358 and LM358s interchangeably in circuit?
While both can serve similar purposes, LM358S offers improved performance. If precision and speed are crucial, it's recommended to use LM358S.
- What are the advantages of LM258 compared to LM358?
The LM258 is categorized as an industrial-grade component, while the LM358 falls under the commercial-grade classification. Notably, the LM258 holds a higher grade status compared to the LM358, boasting superior parameters. Among these chips, the LM258 stands out as a high-performance option.
Ratings and Reviews
RF Attenuator, DC to 6Ghz, 15.75dB/0.25d >
RF Switch SP3T 0MHz to 3.5GHz 26dB 16-Pi >
RF Switch SPDT 0MHz to 2.5GHz 17dB 8-Pin >
Digital Isolator CMOS 4-CH 150Mbps 16-Pi >